The city was officially renamed as Magallanes in , but in it was changed back to "Punta Arenas". It is the largest city south of the 46th parallel south , and at the same time the most populous southernmost city in Chile and in the Americas , and due to its location, the coldest coastal city with more than , inhabitants in Latin America. It is also one of the most populous sites so far south in the world. As of Punta Arenas has been one of only two free ports in Chile, the other one being Iquique , in the country's far north. Located on the Brunswick Peninsula north of the Strait of Magellan , Punta Arenas was originally established by the Chilean government in as a tiny penal colony to assert sovereignty over the Strait. During the remainder of the s, Punta Arenas grew in size and importance due to the increasing maritime traffic and trade travelling to the west coasts of South and North America.
Field experiment on clouds and precipitation under clean air conditions started in southern Chile
Researchers from Leipzig cooperate with scientists from Punta Arenas Chile to learn more about the relationship between air pollution, clouds and precipitation. How do airborne particles, so-called aerosols, affect the formation and life cycle of clouds and precipitation? There, the two institutes cooperate with the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics at Magellan University UMAG , which, in addition to providing the infrastructure for the Leipzig instruments, also contributes its own measurements to the project. The choice fell on Punta Arenas because the city is located on a comparable geographical latitude as Germany and will thus enable comparisons between the northern and southern hemispheres. The measurement campaign is part of the International Year of Polar Prediction YOPP , which aims to improve weather and climate forecasts for the polar regions through intensive measurements. One objective will be, to clarify whether the ice crystals in the virtually aerosol-free atmosphere of Punta Arenas grow more frequently through riming in liquid water layers than through aggregation as compared to the northern hemisphere," explains Junior Prof. Heike Kalesse from Leipzig University.
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. Simulation of dry matter productivity and water dynamics in a Chilean Patagonian range. The climate of this province is characterized by aridity, with precipitation distributed regularly throughout the year that ranges between and mm, with a summer dry season. Sandy soils of recent volcanic origin dominate throughout the Patagonian steppes. This type of grassland supports extensive systems of sheep production for both meat and wool.
The network of long-term meteorological observations in Southernmost Patagonia is still sparse but crucial to improve our understanding of climatic variability, in particular in the more elevated and partially glaciated Southernmost Andes. We revisit the relationship between in situ observations and large-scale climate models as well as mesoscale weather patterns. For this purpose, a year record of ERA Interim Reanalysis data has been used to compute a weather type classification based on a hierarchical correlation-based leader algorithm.